Phi, the Golden Ratio, can be found throughout life and the universe. The appearance of phi creates a sense of balance, harmony and beauty in the design we find in nature. Mankind has both applied this same proportion, both consciously and unconsciously, to achieve balance, harmony and beauty in art, architecture, design and composition.

Raphael and the Golden Ratio in Renaissance Art


Raphael was one of three Master artists of the Renaissance Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance and lived from 1483 to 1520. He is recognized as one of the three great masters of that period, accompanied by Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. His work is admired for its form, composition, and visual … [Read more...]

Leonardo Da Vinci, Salvator Mundi and the Divine Proportion


In 2011, the discovery of a lost painting by Leonardo da Vinci was announced to the world. This painting, Salvator Mundi, had been in the art collection of King Charles I of England in 1649, was auctioned in 1763 and then lost for many years. Its recovery was led by Robert Simon, an art historian and private art dealer, and it was restored by Dianne Dwyer Modestini. Many unique … [Read more...]

Da Vinci and the Divine Proportion in Art Composition


Leonardo Da Vinci has long been associated with the golden ratio. This association was reinforced in popular culture in 2003 by Dan Brown's best selling book "The Da Vinci Code." The plot has pivotal clues involving the golden ratio and Fibonacci series. In 2006, the public awareness of the association grew when the book was turned into a movie starring veteran actor Tom … [Read more...]

The UN Secretariat Building, Le Corbusier and the Golden Ratio


Some claim that the design of the United Nations headquarters building in New York City exemplifies the application of the golden ratio in architecture. Debunkers of the golden ratio say no, that this is just another groundless myth to be dispelled. Let's look at the history of its design, the sources of the claims and mathematics of the dimensions. Perhaps we can come to a … [Read more...]

Logo Design using the Golden Ratio


Phi is often applied in product logos. From Renaissance artists of the 1500's to graphic artists of today, phi is recognized for its ability to give a sense of aesthetic appeal in balance and harmony of design.  Product logos represent an image that must make a positive and memorable impact on the conscious and subconscious minds of consumers, so it is no surprise to find phi … [Read more...]

Product Design and Marketing applications of the Golden Mean


Phi is used in the design of many consumer products. Phi has been used to bring beauty, balance and harmony to some of the world's greatest art and architecture. It is also used to add style and appeal in the marketing and design of everyday consumer products. The applications are endless, but are illustrated by a few of the products below.  Click on the image for a … [Read more...]

Aston Martin, James Bond and the Golden Ratio


What do James Bond, Aston Martin and the Golden Ratio have in common? James Bond, also known as 007, drove an Aston Martin DB5 in the movies GoldFinger and GoldenEye, and Aston Martin is now boasting its application of the Golden Ratio in the design of its latest DB9 and Rapide S automobiles. The Aston Martin Rapide S is described as: "Breathtaking Proportions - The ‘Golden … [Read more...]

Golden Ratio in Art Composition and Design


"Without mathematics there is no art,"  said Luca Pacioli, a contemporary of Da Vinci. Just as the Golden Section is found in the design and beauty of nature, it can also be used to achieve beauty and balance in the design of art.  This is only a tool though, and not a rule, for composition, but still a good Art 101 lesson on laying out a painting on a canvas. The Golden … [Read more...]

Phi in the 23rd Century – Design of Star Trek’s USS Enterprise


Artists and designers have used for the golden ratio for elegance, balance and aesthetics in design since at least the Renaissance, and possibly even as far back as ancient Greece and ancient Egypt.  If the vision of Gene Roddenberry for Star Trek continues on course, the design of future starships will also be based on the unique and timeless proportion of Phi, 1.618,  the … [Read more...]

Seurat and the Golden Ratio in Art Composition


Georges Seurat (1859–1891) was a French Post-Impressionist painter, who according to Wikipedia, "is noted for his innovative use of drawing media and for devising the technique of painting known as pointillism." It continues, "His large-scale work A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884–1886) altered the direction of modern art by initiating … [Read more...]