## Phi is a factor in Sports.

In races, why does the most favored starter win less than half the time? Why does it not win all the time? Just what percentage of the time does it win?

We don’t all choose the favorite to win, but what success rate can we expect whatever we choose? Surely not 100%, but not 0% either. Is there an percent which would be the value most expected?

According to the work and research of Merv Pittman, mathematics predicts that favorites will win 38.2% of races, with an average of 38.2% of the people actually choosing that starter. That percentage is both Phi squared and 1 – Phi.

This theory states the percentage of people who choose any starter is a very good indicator of its chances of success, and that the Golden Ratio is also involved in election results and even how often a goal kicker will be successful.

1 | 100 | |||||||||||||

2 | 62 | 38 | ||||||||||||

3 | 50 | 31 | 19 | |||||||||||

4 | 45 | 28 | 17 | 11 | ||||||||||

5 | 42 | 26 | 16 | 10 | 6 | |||||||||

6 | 40 | 25 | 15 | 10 | 6 | 4 | ||||||||

7 | 39 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | |||||||

8 | 39 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | ||||||

9 | 39 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | |||||

10 | 39 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 1 | ||||

11 | 38 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | |||

12 | 38 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | ||

13 | 38 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | |

14 | 38 | 24 | 15 | 9 | 6 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | |

1^{st} | 2^{nd} | 3^{rd} | 4^{th} | 5^{th} | 6^{th} | 7^{th} | 8^{th} | 9^{th} | 10^{th} | 11^{th} | 12^{th} | 13^{th} |

As the number of contenders grow each ranking approaches its limit, a definite number, no matter how large the field becomes. This fact becomes a powerful mathematical tool in predicting outcomes in sporting events or political elections.

## Phi may also be a factor in political elections.

Note the percentage of the votes that were given in elections identified by Wikipedia as “landslide” elections in the popular vote of presidential elections, and their closeness to phi at 61.8% and phi squared at 38.2%:

Year | Winner | Vote | Loser | Vote |

1964 | Lyndon Johnson | 61.10% | Barry Goldwater | 38.50% |

1936 | Franklin D. Roosevelt | 60.80% | Alf Landon | 36.50% |

1972 | Richard Nixon | 60.70% | George McGovern | 37.50% |

1920 | Warren Harding | 60.30% | JameM. Cox | 34.10% |

1984 | Ronald Reagan | 58.80% | Walter Mondale | 40.60% |

1904 | Theodore Roosevelt | 56.40% | Alton B. Parker | 37.60% |

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